Monaco is the second smallest country in the world with only 2 sq. km area (Smallest is Vatican). Spectacular planning of the entire city-state across 6 levels demonstrating an elegant way to plan a city using tiers (probably second to Singapore). Highest per capita GDP of $168,000 and the lifestyle that goes with it. Franco-Monegasque treaty of 1861 stamped the House of Grimaldi a long lasting abode in Europe.